Why States Should Adopt UCC Article 1

Article 1 serves all other articles of the Uniform Commercial Code with definitions and general provisions. Revised Article 1 improves old Article 1 in the following ways:

  • Modernization. The UCC has entirely been amended or revised between 1985 and 2003. Most states have enacted these revisions and amendments. It is time to bring Article 1 as up-to-date as the rest of the UCC.
  • Narrower Scope. The intentionally narrowed scope of the substantive rules in Article 1 prevent them from being applied outside the UCC with potentially serious unintended consequences.
  • Clarifies When Non-UCC Rules Apply. Other law will clearly supplement, but does not supplant UCC rules. This reduces interpretation problems and the opportunities for litigation.
  • Good Faith. Reasonable commercial standards will affect the determination of what is good faith in any given case for the entire UCC, not just individual articles. This is a fairer standard for courts to enforce and is the existing standard in most of the substantive articles of the UCC.
  • Broader Choice of Law. Parties to transactions under the UCC may choose any law that best governs their transaction, except in a consumer transaction in which the choice of law would deprive a consumer of the protections of his or her own state’s law. This amendment provides for greater flexibility in doing business interstate and is good for business.
  • Course of Performance Added. Absent express terms, evidence of “course of performance” (a concept currently utilized only in Articles 2 and 2A of the UCC) may be used in court to interpret a contract along with course of dealing and usage of trade. Courts will have more complete evidence on the meaning of contracts and the intent of the parties to them.
  • Statute of Frauds Deleted. General writing and signature requirements are deleted to make way for the specific provisions for electronic records and signatures that are contained in the substantive UCC articles.


Modifications and revisions of other articles in the Uniform Commercial Code require the revision of Article 1 of the UCC. This required harmonization of Article 1 with the other revised articles as well as the need to reflect in Article 1 recent changes and developments in law are both expressed in Revised Article 1. It is important for every state to adopt Revised Article 1 of the Uniform Commercial Code.